Outside the parliamentary precinct, Zuma thanked the ANC MPs who helped keep him in power and the crowd of people who were camped outside parliament throughout the day.
Reacting to the vote, Zuma told supporters gathered outside the parliament in Cape Town: "It's hard to defeat the ANC".
Experts say that the process only reveals the cracks within the ANC party and the increasing number of MPs who are against Zuma.
Opposition parties have lobbied for months for an anonymous no-confidence vote to provide cover to disgruntled members of Zuma's African National Congress who may fear coming out against their leader in an open ballot.
Zuma has survived eight no confidence motion in the past seven years.
As head of the party that led South Africa out of apartheid, Zuma won the presidential election in 2009 and 2014, but has been dogged by criminal investigations and corruption allegations.
This is the eighth time Mr Zuma has survived a no-confidence vote.
The motion brought by the opposition needed to secure 201 of the 400 votes in parliament to succeed, but fell short with 177 votes, national assembly Speaker Baleka Mbete announced.
"We are here to remove Duduzane's father, because Duduzane's father is the most corrupt individual in this country", he said.
United Democratic Movement (UDM) leader Bantu Holomisa, whose party took the secret ballot matter to the Constitutional Court, appealed to all MPs to use the opportunity to do the right thing.
Mthembu noted that this outcome indicates that more than 25 ANC MPs voted with the opposition.
ANC party members are also expected to march on the same streets in support for him. Zuma's political allies, the South African Communist Party and a federation of trade unions called for him to quit.
Kodwa said Zuma was on his way to address supporters outside Parliament. As Tuesday's vote arrived, South Africans are also suffering from a rocky economy: The country's credit rating was dropped to a junk rating this spring, and the unemployment rate is almost 28 percent.
If the motion is successful, Zuma - whose term is due to run until 2019 - would be removed as president but would remain as ANC leader until December, when he is due to step down and a new leader elected in his place.